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  1. #21
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    v t e
    The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized market for the trading of currencies. The main participants in this market are the larger international banks. Financial centers around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of multiple types of buyers and sellers around the clock, with the exception of weekends. The foreign exchange market determines the relative values of different currencies.[1]

    The foreign exchange market works through financial institutions, and it operates on several levels. Behind the scenes banks turn to a smaller number of financial firms known as dealers, who are actively involved in large quantities of foreign exchange trading. Most foreign exchange dealers are banks, so this behind-the-scenes market is sometimes called the interbank market, although a few insurance companies and other kinds of financial firms are involved. Trades between foreign exchange dealers can be very large, involving hundreds of millions of dollars.[citation needed] Because of the sovereignty issue when involving two currencies, Forex has little (if any) supervisory entity regulating its actions.

    The foreign exchange market assists international trade and investments by enabling currency conversion. For example, it permits a business in the United States to import goods from the European Union member states, especially Eurozone members, and pay euros, even though its income is in United States dollars. It also supports direct speculation and evaluation relative to the value of currencies, and the carry trade, speculation based on the interest rate differential between two currencies.[2]

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    , notwithstanding currency intervention by central banks.

    According to the Bank for International Settlements,[3] the preliminary global results from the 2013 Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and OTC Derivatives Markets Activity show that trading in foreign exchange markets averaged $5.3 trillion per day in April 2013. This is up from $4.0 trillion in April 2010 and $3.3 trillion in April 2007. Foreign exchange swaps were the most actively traded instruments in April 2013, at $2.2 trillion per day, followed by spot trading at $2.0 trillion.

    According to the Bank for International Settlements,[4] as of April 2010, average daily turnover in global foreign exchange markets is estimated at $3.98 trillion, a growth of approximately 20% over the $3.21 trillion daily volume as of April 2007. Some firms specializing on foreign exchange market had put the average daily turnover in excess of US$4 trillion.[5]

    The $3.98 trillion break-down is as follows:

    $1.490 trillion in spot transactions

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    the low margins of relative profit compared with other markets of fixed income; and
    the use of leverage to enhance profit and loss margins and with respect to account size.
    As such, it has been referred to as the market closest to the ideal of perfect competition
    $475 billion in outright forwards

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    1 History
    1.1 Ancient
    1.2 Medieval and later
    1.3 Early modern
    1.4 Modern to post-modern
    1.4.1 After WWII
    1.4.2 Markets close
    1.4.3 After 1973
    2 Market size and liquidity
    3 Market participants

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    3.6 Retail foreign exchange traders
    3.7 Non-bank foreign exchange companies
    3.8 Money transfer/remittance companies and bureaux de change
    4 Trading characteristics
    5 Determinants of exchange rates
    5.1 Economic factors
    5.2 Political conditions
    5.3 Market psychology
    6 Financial instruments
    6.1 Spot

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    ard
    6.3 Swap
    6.4 Future
    6.5 Option
    7 Speculation
    8 Risk aversion
    9 Carry trade
    10 Forex signals
    11 See also
    12 References
    13 External links
    History[edit]

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    From 1899 to 1913, holdings of countries' foreign exchange increased at an annual rate of 10.8%, while holdings of gold increased at an annual rate of 6.3% between 1903 and 1913.[24]

    At the time of the closing of the year 1913, nearly half of the world's foreign exchange was conducted using the Pound sterling.[25] The number of foreign banks operating within the boundaries of London increased in the years from 1860 to 1913 from 3 to 71. In 1902 there were altogether two London foreign exchange brokers.[26] In the earliest years of the twentieth century trade was most active in Paris, New York and Berlin, while Britain remained largely uninvolved in trade until 1914. Between 1919 and 1922 the employment of foreign exchange brokers within London increased to 17, in 1924 there were 40 firms operating for the purposes of exchange.[27] During the 1920s the occurrence of trade in London resembled more the modern manifestation, by 1928 forex trade was integral to the financial functioning of the city. Continental exchange controls, plus other factors, in Europe and Latin America, hampered any attempt at wholesale prosperity from trade for those of 1930's London.[28]

    During the 1920s, the Kleinwort family were known to be the leaders of the foreign exchange market; while Japheth, Montagu & Co., and Seligman still warrant recognition as significant FX traders.[29]

  9. #28
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    Modern to post-modern[edit]
    After WWII[edit]
    After WWII, the Bretton Woods Accord was signed allowing currencies to fluctuate within a range of 1% to the currencies par.[30] In Japan the law was changed during 1954 by the Foreign Exchange Bank Law, so, the Bank of Tokyo was to become, because of this, the centre of foreign exchange by September of that year. Between 1954 and 1959 Japanese law was made to allow the inclusion of many more Occidental currencies in Japanese forex.[31]

    U.S. President Richard Nixon is credited with ending the Bretton Woods Accord and fixed rates of exchange, eventually bringing about a free-floating currency system. After the ceasing of the enactment of the "Bretton Woods Accord" during 1971,[32] the Smithsonian Agreement allowed trading to range to 2%. During 1961–62, the amount of foreign operations by the U.S. Federal Reserve was relatively low.[33][34] Those involved in controlling exchange rates found the boundaries of the Agreement were not realistic and so ceased this in March 1973, when sometime afterward none of the major currencies were maintained with a capacity for conversion to gold, organisations relied instead on reserves of currency.[35][36] During 1970 to 1973 the amount of trades occurring in the market increased three-fold.[37][38][39] At some time (according to Gandolfo during February–March 1973) some of the markets' were "split", so a two tier currency market was subsequently introduced, with dual currency rates. This was abolished during March 1974.[40][41][42]

  10. #29
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    re required to open banks at foreign locations in order to exchange currencies to act on behalf of textile merchants.[11][12] To facilitate trade the bank created the nostro (from Italian translated – "ours") account book which contained two columned entries showing amounts of foreign and local currencies, information pertaining to the keeping of an account with a foreign bank.[13][14][15][16] During the 17th (or 18th ) century Amsterdam maintained an active forex market.[17] During 1704 foreign exchange took place between agents acting in the interests of the nations of England and Holland.[18]

    Early modern[edit]
    Alex. Brown & Sons traded foreign currencies exchange sometime about 1850 and was a leading participant in this within U.S.A.[19] During 1880, J.M. do Esprito Santo de Silva (Banco Esprito Santo) applied for and was given permission to begin to engage in a foreign exchange trading business.[20][21]

    The year 1880 is considered by at least one source to be the

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  12. #30
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    Markets close[edit]
    Due to the ultimate ineffectiveness of the Bretton Woods Accord and the European Joint Float the forex markets were forced to close sometime during 1972 and March 1973.[44][45] The very largest of all purchases of dollars in the history of 1976 was when the West German government achieved an almost 3 billion dollar acquisition (a figure given as 2.75 billion in total by The Statesman: Volume 18 1974), this event indicated the impossibility of the balancing of exchange stabilities by the measures of control used at the time and the monetary system and the foreign exchange markets in "West" Germany and other countries within Europe closed for two weeks (during February and, or, March 1973. Giersch, Paqu, & Schmieding state closed after purchase of "7.5 million Dmarks" Brawley states "... Exchange markets had to be closed. When they re-opened ... March 1 " that is a large purchase occurred after the close).[46][47][48][49]

    After 1973[edit]
    The year 1973 marks the point to which nation-state, banking trade and controlled foreign exchange ended and complete floating, relatively free conditions of a market characteristic of the situation in contemporary times began (according to one source),[50] although another states the first time a currency pair were given as an option for U.S.A. traders to purchase was during 1982, with additional currencies available by the next year.[51][52]

    On 1 January 1981 (as part of changes beginning during 1978 [53]) the Bank of China allowed certain domestic "enterprises" to participate in foreign exchange trading.[54] Sometime during the months of 1981 the South Korean government ended forex controls and allowed free trade to occur for the first time. During 1988 the countries government accepted the IMF quota for international trade.[55]

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